Newborn of COVID 19 Positive Mother.
Dr. Zafeer Syed Mohammad
(Specialist in pediatrics & Neonatology, Al mana general hospital, Royal commission Jubail, Saudi Arabia)
Coronavirus disease (COVID 19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus in December 2019. The incubation period for COVID-19, which is the time between exposure to the virus (becoming infected) and symptom onset, is on average 5-6 days, however can be up to 14 days.
During this period, also known as the “pre-symptomatic” period, some infected persons can be contagious. Therefore, transmission from a pre-symptomatic case can occur before symptom onset.
The most common symptoms are fever, cough, body pain, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and even death.
The period within which the symptoms would appear is 2-14 days. It is not known if a pregnant woman with COVID-19 can pass the virus to her foetus or baby during pregnancy or delivery.
To date, the virus has not been found in samples of amniotic fluid or breastmilk (6 May 2020) Should pregnant women be tested for COVID-19? Testing protocols and eligibility vary depending on where you live.
However, WHO recommendations are that pregnant women with symptoms of COVID-19 should be prioritized for testing. If they have COVID-19, they may need specialized care.
Do pregnant women with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 need to give birth by cesarean section? No. WHO advice is that cesarean sections should only be performed when medically justified.
The mode of birth should be individualized and based on a woman’s preferences alongside obstetric indications. Can babies get coronavirus disease? It is possible for people of any age to be infected with the virus, but so far there are relatively few cases of COVID-19 reported 1-2% among children below 9 years.
What care should be available during pregnancy and childbirth? All pregnant women, including those with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infections, have the right to high-quality care before, during, and after childbirth.
This includes antenatal, newborn, postnatal, intrapartum, and mental health care. A safe and positive childbirth experience includes:
- Being treated with respect and dignity.
- Having a companion of choice present during delivery.
- Clear communication by maternity staff.
- Appropriate pain relief strategies.
- Mobility in labor where possible.
Can I touch and hold my newborn baby if I have COVID-19? Yes. Close contact and early, exclusive breastfeeding helps a baby to thrive. You should be supported to
- Breastfeed safely, with good respiratory hygiene.
- Hold your newborn skin-to-skin.
- Share a room with your baby.
- You should wash your hands before and after touching your baby and keep all surfaces clean.
Can women with the coronavirus disease breastfeed? Yes. Women with COVID-19 can breastfeed if they wish to do so. They should:
- Practice respiratory hygiene during feeding.
- Wearing a mask.
- Wash hands before and after touching the baby.
- Routinely clean and disinfect surfaces they have touched.
Can pregnant or postpartum women transmit the COVID-19 virus to their unborn child or infant?
There are little data on the clinical presentation of COVID-19 in specific populations, such as children and pregnant women but findings from a small published study suggest that there is currently no evidence for intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy.
Are pregnant women at higher risk from COVID-19?
Research is currently underway to understand the impacts of COVID 19 infection on pregnant women. Data are limited, but at present, there is no evidence that they are at higher risk of severe illness than the general population.
However, due to changes in their bodies and immune systems, we know that pregnant women can be badly affected by some respiratory infections. It is therefore important that they take precautions to protect themselves against COVID-19, and report possible symptoms (including fever, cough or difficulty breathing) to their healthcare provider.
WHO will continue to review and update its information and advice as more evidence becomes available.
How to disinfect houses of COVID-19 patients?
Environmental cleaning in healthcare facilities or homes housing patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection should use disinfectants that are active against enveloped viruses, and other coronaviruses.
There are many disinfectants, including commonly used hospital disinfectants, that are active against enveloped viruses. Currently WHO recommendations include the use of:
70% Ethyl alcohol to disinfect reusable dedicated equipment (e.g., thermometers) between uses * Sodium hypochlorite at 0.5% (equivalent 5000ppm) for disinfection of frequently touched surfaces in homes or healthcare facilities.
Are masks effective against the coronavirus disease?
- If you are healthy, you only need to wear a mask if you are taking care of a person with suspected COVID-19 infection.
- Wear a mask if you are coughing or sneezing.
- Masks are effective only when used in combination with frequent hand-cleaning with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
- If you wear a mask, then you must know how to use it and dispose of it properly.
What is the recovery time for the coronavirus disease?
Using available preliminary data, the median time from onset to clinical recovery for mild cases is approximately 2 weeks and is 3-6 weeks for patients with the severe or critical disease.
Can the coronavirus disease spread through food?
Current evidence on other coronavirus strains shows that while coronaviruses appear to be stable at low and freezing temperatures for a certain period, food hygiene and good food safety practices can prevent their transmission through food.
Can you contract the coronavirus disease by touching a surface?
People could catch COVID-19 by touching contaminated surfaces or objects – and then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth.
Can patients with suspected and confirmed COVID-19 infection be cohorted in the same room?
Ideally, suspected and confirmed COVID 19 acute respiratory disease patients should be isolated in single rooms. However, when this is not feasible (e.g., a limited number of single rooms), cohorting is an acceptable option. A minimum of the 1-meter distance between beds should be maintained at all the time.
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